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16. Why does the author discuss the terms “coast” and “shore” in paragraph 1?
17. The word submerged in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
18. All of the following statements accurately describe coasts and shores EXCEPT:
19. According to the passage, why do many coasts have characteristics of shores?
20. It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that the Oregon coast is
21. Which of the following is given as a cause of the different shapes of Pacific and Atlantic type coastlines?
22. Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 4?
23. The word batter in paragraph 4 is closest in meaning to
24. According to paragraph 4, tectonic activity affects coasts and shores by
25. Look at the four squares, A , B , C and D , which indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where would the sentence best fit?
The straightness or irregularity of a coastline depends on the processes that have shaped it.
A In areas where river valleys meet the sea along a rocky coast, bays are likely to occur. The direction of the structural “grain” of the coastal rock affects the shape of the coastline. B If the grain is mostly parallel to the coast, as along the Oregon coast, the mouths of few rivers will indent the coastline because river valleys tend to follow the grain. C Such coastlines—called Pacific type—are likely to be smooth, straight, or gently curving. D On the other hand, if the grain of the rock is at an angle to the coast, as in Maine and Norway, many more valleys will reach the coastline, forming closely spaced bays. Such coastlines are of the Atlantic type.