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1. The word conjecture in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to
2. According to the passage, past depictions of Earth’s interior include all of the following EXCEPT
3. According to the passage, one current belief about Earth’s interior that differs from past beliefs is that
4. According to paragraph 2, current scientific knowledge of Earth’s interior is mainly based on
5. What is the main purpose of paragraph 3?
6. According to paragraph 3, an elastic material is one that
7. The word deform in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to
8. It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that shear forces
9. Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 4? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
10. Paragraph 4 supports which of the following statements?
11. The word synthesizing in paragraph 5 is closest in meaning to
12. According to paragraph 5, one result of seismic tomography is
13. Look at the four squares, A , B , C and D , which indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. Where would the sentence best fit?
However, comparisons of seismic data show that sometimes seismic waves decrease or increase in velocity.
Today, scientists believe that Earth has a solid iron core, approximately the size of the moon, with an outer core of liquid iron and nickel, surrounded by a solid mantle and a crust of tectonic plates. Most knowledge about the interior comes from analysis of variations in the speed of seismic waves recorded during earthquakes. The invention of the seismograph in 1875 was critical in the development of a detailed picture of the planet’s structure. A By the early twentieth century, a global network of seismographs allowed scientists to record earthquake activity around the world. B When an earthquake occurs, it releases seismic waves that race through the planet’s body. These waves are measured by the thousands of seismographs worldwide. C Seismic waves tend to travel in a straight line and at an unchanging velocity as long as they pass through a homogeneous medium at constant temperature and pressure. D Changes in speed indicate that the waves are passing through materials of varied composition and structure at different temperatures and pressures.
14. An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Although Earth’s interior has never been explored directly, scientists have other ways to learn about its structure and composition.