[cs_content][cs_section parallax=”false” style=”margin: 0px;padding: 0px 0px 15px;”][cs_row inner_container=”true” marginless_columns=”false” style=”margin: 0px auto;padding: 0px;”][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”1/1″ style=”padding: 0px;”][x_custom_headline level=”h2″ looks_like=”h3″ accent=”false” class=”cs-ta-center”]Connecting Information[/x_custom_headline][/cs_column][/cs_row][/cs_section][cs_section bg_color=”hsl(0, 0%, 100%)” parallax=”false” style=”margin: 0px;padding: 30px 0px 0px;”][cs_row inner_container=”true” marginless_columns=”false” style=”margin: 0px auto;padding: 0px;”][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”1/6″ style=”padding: 0px;”] [/cs_column][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”2/3″ style=”padding: 0px;”][cs_text]The audio transcripts and the key points are below. At the real TOEFL iBT test, you do not have access to them. We’re including them here so you can learn from the transcripts and the key points, but you should look at them after you complete the tasks.[/cs_text][x_gap size=”50px”][x_custom_headline level=”h5″ looks_like=”h5″ accent=”false”]Exercise 4.1.A[/x_custom_headline][cs_text]For this task, you will write a response to a question about a reading passage and a lecture. You may take notes, and you may use your notes to help you write your response. Your response will be scored on the quality of your writing and on how well you connect the points in the lecture with points in the reading.

Typically, an effective response will have 150 to 225 words.[/cs_text][cs_text]Reading Time – 3 minutes[/cs_text][x_accordion][x_accordion_item title=”Click here for the reading passage” open=”false”]Pruning is removing dead or living branches of a tree to improve the tree’s health and structure. Careful pruning will control the size of a tree and hold the tree within bounds. Tree size is maintained through crown reduction pruning, the removal of larger branches at the top of the tree to reduce its height. When done properly, crown reduction only removes branches immediately above the joint with other branches, leaving no stubs.

Pruning invigorates trees and keeps them healthy. In general, a tree will be more vigorous with a few healthy branches than with many weak ones. Crowded branches never develop to full size. Large branches compete with small branches, and the small ones become targets for disease and breakage. Pruning encourages trees to develop a strong structure, which reduces the likelihood of damage during severe weather. Pruning should always be done sparingly; removing too many branches in one season can damage the tree’s capability for photosynthesis.

The aim of pruning is to enhance the natural shape and beauty of a tree. Most hardwood trees have rounded crowns that lack a strong leader and may have several lateral, or side, branches. Branches grow from stems at nodes, and cuts are always made just above the stem–branch node so that the wound heals effectively. Cuts should not be made in the middle of a branch or near the end of a branch. After a mature tree reaches the desirable shape, pruning should be done only to remove broken or diseased branches and to thin occasionally to avoid overcrowding.[/x_accordion_item][/x_accordion][cs_text]Now listen to the recording. When you hear the question, begin your response. You may look at the reading passage during the writing time.[/cs_text][x_audio_player src=”https://jaimemiller.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Album-08-Track-02.mp3″ advanced_controls=”false” preload=”none” autoplay=”false” loop=”false”][x_accordion][x_accordion_item title=”Click here for the prompt” open=”false”]Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they contrast with specific points made in the reading passage.[/x_accordion_item][/x_accordion][cs_text]Writing Time – 20 minutes[/cs_text][x_accordion][x_accordion_item title=”Click to see the key points” open=”false”]Key points:

•The lecture describes a poor pruning practice known as topping.
•The lecture states that topping does not keep a tree small; topping increases a tree’s growth rate. This contrasts with the point in the reading that careful pruning will control the size of a tree.
•The lecture states that topping is very stressful for trees. This contrasts with the point in the reading that pruning invigorates trees and keeps them healthy.
•The lecture states that topping destroys a tree’s natural shape. This contrasts with the point in the reading that pruning should enhance the natural shape and beauty of a tree.[/x_accordion_item][/x_accordion][/cs_column][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”1/6″ style=”padding: 0px;”] [/cs_column][/cs_row][/cs_section][cs_section bg_color=”hsl(0, 0%, 100%)” parallax=”false” style=”margin: 0px;padding: 30px 0px 0px;”][cs_row inner_container=”true” marginless_columns=”false” style=”margin: 0px auto;padding: 0px;”][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”1/6″ style=”padding: 0px;”] [/cs_column][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”2/3″ style=”padding: 0px;”][x_gap size=”50px”][x_custom_headline level=”h5″ looks_like=”h5″ accent=”false”]Exercise 4.1.B[/x_custom_headline][cs_text]For this task, you will write a response to a question about a reading passage and a lecture. You may take notes, and you may use your notes to help you write your response. Your response will be scored on the quality of your writing and on how well you connect the points in the lecture with points in the reading.

Typically, an effective response will have 150 to 225 words.[/cs_text][cs_text]Reading Time – 3 minutes[/cs_text][x_audio_player src=”https://jaimemiller.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Album-08-Track-03.mp3″ advanced_controls=”false” preload=”none” autoplay=”false” loop=”false”][x_accordion][x_accordion_item title=”Click here for the reading passage” open=”false”]People who are especially talented in solving problems that concern an understanding of space are said to have visual–spatial intelligence, a superior visual sense. People with visual–spatial intelligence are able to perceive patterns. They will notice immediately when a building, painting, or face is not symmetrical. They can recognize objects, both when the objects are seen in their original setting and when some part of the original setting has changed. Their ability to perceive patterns enables them to draw whatever object they see, usually after seeing the object for only a short time.

Typically, visual–spatial intelligence involves several related capacities, such as the ability to create and transform mental imagery, the ability to mentally rotate complex forms and “see” objects from various angles, and the ability to draw a picture or map of spatial information. Visual–spatial skills are used when an individual works with graphic depictions—two–dimensional or three–dimensional versions of real–world scenes—as well as other symbols, such as maps, diagrams, or geometrical forms.

People with visual–spatial intelligence have a superior visual memory, or visual imagination, but this memory is abstract rather than pictorial—a kind of geometrical memory. A visual imagination involves the ability to predict and plan ahead. People with a visual imagination are skilled at understanding patterns, including patterns of mental reasoning, which enables them to predict actions and their consequences before these actions occur. For this reason, many people with visual–spatial intelligence love to play games.[/x_accordion_item][/x_accordion][cs_text]Now listen to the recording. When you hear the question, begin your response. You may look at the reading passage during the writing time.[/cs_text][x_accordion][x_accordion_item title=”Click here for the prompt” open=”false”]Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they illustrate specific points made in the reading passage.[/x_accordion_item][/x_accordion][cs_text]Writing Time – 20 minutes[/cs_text][x_accordion][x_accordion_item title=”Click to see the key points” open=”false”]Key points:

•The lecture illustrates visual–spatial intelligence by explaining its importance in the game of chess.
•The lecture states that chess masters can draw a picture of a chessboard they have seen for just a few seconds if the pieces are set in meaningful positions. This illustrates the point in the reading that people with visual–spatial intelligence are able to perceive patterns and draw objects after seeing them for only a short time.
•The lecture states that a blindfolded chess player has to remember the movements of the chess pieces and hold a picture of the chessboard in his mind. This illustrates the point in the reading that people with visual–spatial intelligence have the ability to create and transform mental imagery.
•The lecture states that chess players remember plans, strategies, and patterns of reasoning of important games they have played. This illustrates the point in the reading that people with visual–spatial intelligence have superior visual memory and the ability to predict and plan ahead.[/x_accordion_item][/x_accordion][x_gap size=”50px”][cs_text]Do not look at the transcripts until after you finish the tasks.[/cs_text][x_accordion][x_accordion_item title=”Transcript for Exercise 4.1.A” open=”false”]Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you just read about.

Pruning needs to be done wisely because trees that are badly pruned can become a hazard. A good example is the silver maple belonging to one of my clients. This once– beautiful hardwood was the innocent victim of tree topping— a pruning practice that simply cuts off the tops of major branches. Because of the poor pruning it received, this tree is now dangerous and has to be removed.

Tree topping causes several problems. First, it won’t keep a tree small. On the contrary, cutting back the tip of a branch will force the development of side branches. The growth rate of a tree speeds up, and within a few years, the tree is close to its original size. My client’s tree now has seven long 300–pound branches stretching out over the house and driveway. Any one of these could crush a car.

Second, topping is very stressful for trees. Such heavy pruning removes too many leaves, the tree’s food factories, and so the tree may starve. The shoots that grow back after topping are weak, and they break off easily in the wind. My client’s maple tree has several small branches that are dead or dying, and there’s evidence of insect damage.

Finally, topping destroys a tree’s natural shape. It turns a beautiful branching tree into an ugly eyesore—not to mention a safety hazard. The silver maple should have one main trunk with three or four sturdy lateral branches. Instead, it has seven weak branches. Topping destroyed its natural shape and gave it a weak branch structure. The tree should have had an occasional light pruning instead of the chainsaw butchering it got.

Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they contrast with specific points made in the reading passage.
[/x_accordion_item][x_accordion_item title=”Transcript for Exercise 4.1.B” open=”false”]Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you just read about.

The importance of visual–spatial intelligence can be seen in the game of chess. First of all, chess masters have an amazing ability to draw a picture of a chessboard they’ve seen for just a few seconds—if the pieces on the board are set in meaningful positions, as they are in the middle of a real game. But if the chess pieces are randomly located, in no meaningful pattern, the chess master may not be able to reconstruct the board.

Second, the chess player has to remember the movements of the chess pieces. In a form of chess called blindfold chess, a person plays several games at the same time. For example, a blindfolded chess player might be playing ten games against ten different opponents, going from table to table. His opponents can see the chessboard, but the blindfolded player can’t. The blindfolded player’s only information about the chessboard is from someone announcing his opponent’s last move. He has to hold a picture of the chessboard in his mind.

Furthermore, chess players have strong visual memories of important games they’ve played in the past. This memory isn’t just simple recall. Rather, it’s the ability to remember a game’s patterns of reasoning. The chess player remembers plans and strategies—not just a rote list of moves. For most chess players, each game has its own character and shape. As the player recalls a given position, he remembers his reasoning at an earlier time. He remembers a specific move—not all by itself— but as part of a strategy. He recalls why that move was necessary. Thus, he is able to predict what will happen next in the game.

Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they illustrate specific points made in the reading passage.[/x_accordion_item][/x_accordion][/cs_column][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”1/6″ style=”padding: 0px;”] [/cs_column][/cs_row][/cs_section][cs_section parallax=”false” style=”margin: 0px;padding: 0px 0px 15px;”][cs_row inner_container=”true” marginless_columns=”false” style=”margin: 0px auto;padding: 0px;”][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”1/3″ style=”padding: 0px;”][x_gap size=”50px”][/cs_column][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”1/3″ style=”padding: 0px;”][x_gap size=”50px”][x_button shape=”rounded” size=”x-large” block=”true” circle=”false” icon_only=”false” href=”https://jaimemiller.com/tasks/4-1-integrated-writing-connecting-information/” title=”” target=”” info=”none” info_place=”top” info_trigger=”hover” info_content=””]Return[/x_button][x_gap size=”50px”][/cs_column][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”1/3″ style=”padding: 0px;”][x_gap size=”50px”][/cs_column][/cs_row][/cs_section][cs_section parallax=”false” style=”margin: 0px;padding: 0px 0px 15px;”][cs_row inner_container=”true” marginless_columns=”false” style=”margin: 0px auto;padding: 0px;”][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”1/6″ style=”padding: 0px;”] [/cs_column][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”2/3″ style=”padding: 0px;”][x_custom_headline level=”h2″ looks_like=”h3″ accent=”false”]Extension[/x_custom_headline][cs_text]

1

With your teacher and classmates, discuss situations in which it is necessary to write about information from different types of sources. On the board, write a list of as many situations as you can think of. (Possible situations: research papers; open–book tests; business reports.) What types of sources might be used for each writing situation?

2

Review your response to the writing question in Exercise 4.1.A or 4.1.B. Analyze and evaluate your response by answering the following questions:

a. What important points from the lecture does my response convey?

b. What examples and explanation does my response include?

c. How can I improve my responses for this type of question in the future?

3

Share and discuss your response to the writing question in Exercise 4.1.A or 4.1.B. Work in a group of three students. Make copies of your response, and give a copy to everyone in your group. Read and discuss each student’s writing. Answer the following questions about each:

a. What important points from the lecture does the response convey?

b. What examples and explanation does the response include?

c. Does the response answer the question effectively?

Make suggestions that will help each student improve in the future.

[/cs_text][x_gap size=”50px”][/cs_column][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”1/6″ style=”padding: 0px;”] [/cs_column][/cs_row][/cs_section][cs_section parallax=”false” style=”margin: 0px;padding: 0px 0px 15px;”][cs_row inner_container=”true” marginless_columns=”false” style=”margin: 0px auto;padding: 0px;”][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”1/6″ style=”padding: 0px;”] [/cs_column][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”2/3″ style=”padding: 0px;”][x_line style=”border-top-color: hsl(222, 55%, 28%);border-top-width: 1px;”][cs_text]

This program and course are copyright of Delta Publishing and have been licensed to Jaime Miller Advising.

No part of this course may be shared, re-used, downloaded without permission.

[/cs_text][x_gap size=”50px”][/cs_column][cs_column fade=”false” fade_animation=”in” fade_animation_offset=”45px” fade_duration=”750″ type=”1/6″ style=”padding: 0px;”] [/cs_column][/cs_row][/cs_section][/cs_content]