Listen to the recordings and choose the best answer to each question. To make this quiz more like the real test, cover the questions and answers during each conversation and lecture. When you hear the first question for each set, uncover the questions and answers.

Time – approximately 12 minutes

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Listen to a talk in a business management class.

What do we mean when we talk about leadership? First, it’s important not to confuse leadership with power. It’s true that— by definition—leaders always have some degree of power. Leaders have power because of their ability to influence other people. However, many power holders do not have the qualities of leadership. Consider the headwaiter in your favorite restaurant. The headwaiter has power to some degree—for example, the power to seat you at the best table by the window—but he doesn’t necessarily have the qualities we associate with leadership.

We have to distinguish between leaders and power holders. There are a lot of powerful people who lack leadership skills. A military dictator has power. So does the robber who sticksa gun in your face and demands your wallet. Leadership is something else.

Leadership and power are not the same thing, although they are similar in this one way. Both leadership and power involve the ability to … bring about the results you want, and to … prevent the results that you don’t want to happen.

Here’s another way to think of it. In sociological terms, … uh … power is simply the ability to bring about certain behavior in other people. For example, parents have power over their children, and they use it to get their children to behave in acceptable ways. Teachers have power, and so do mid–level managers—all as a result of their position.

Where does power come from? The sources are varied. Probably the oldest source of power is the ability to use physical force—a source available to both the military and the biggest kid on the playground. The power that comes from physical might is not the same as leadership. Just think of the military dictator … or the school bully. We don’t usually think of these power holders as leaders—despite the brute force they use to control others.

Wealth, position, the ability to motivate—all of these are sources of power. Being close to others with power is a source of power. That’s why people gravitate toward political leaders. Some power comes from qualities people were born with—like physical beauty, or the ability to influence friends. Science and technology are also sources of power. Corporations understand this and spend huge amounts of money on research,information systems, and consultants.

Although leadership and power are different things, they’re related in important ways. Consider, for example, a chief executive officer who has the ability to motivate people, a CEO with vision, who can lift the spirit of his or her employees and bring about a rise in productivity—that is leadership. But consider this scenario. The company realizes they’re sort of falling behind in the technology race, so the CEO responds by increasing the amount of money available to the company’s research division. That is the exercise of power. Authorizing a spending increase could have been made only by a chief executive with the power to do so. Remember, both leadership and power involve the ability to accomplish the results you want, and successful managers understand how the two work together to make this happen.

1. What is the talk mainly about?

2. Why does the professor talk about the headwaiter in a restaurant?

3. Why does the professor say this:

“A military dictator has power. So does the robber who sticks a gun in your face and demands your wallet. Leadership is something else.”

4. According to the professor, how are leadership and power similar?

5. Listen again to part of the talk. Then answer the question.

“Authorizing a spending increase could have been made only by a chief executive with the power to do so. Remember, both leadership and power involve the ability to accomplish the results you want, and successful managers understand how the two work together to make this happen.”

What does the professor imply about successful managers?

A forester has been invited to speak to a group of students. Listen to part of the talk.

M1: No matter whether we live in the country, the suburbs, or the city, we come in contact with forests every day. A combination of trees, other plants, insects, wildlife, soil, water, air, and people is a forest. I’m a professional forester. That means I’ve been trained in the management of forests. Managing a forest is both a science and an art, which is why my education included courses in the biological, physical, and social sciences, as well as the humanities.

W: Doesn’t being a forester mean you always work in the woods?

M1: Foresters, of course, do work in the woods. Moreand more, however, they also work in laboratories, classrooms, planning agencies, corporate offices, and so forth. In fact, our professional organization, the Society of American Foresters, lists over 700 job categories.

M2: I’ve always been confused about the difference between a national park and a national forest. In a lot of ways they’re similar. For example, we can camp and hike in both.

M1: There is a difference between them. National parks, such as Yellowstone, are set aside and preserved in a near–natural state, mainly for the recreational enjoyment of the public. Our parks are administered by the Department of the Interior. National forests, on the other hand, are administered by the Department of Agriculture. Our forests are managed for their many benefits, including recreation, wood products, wildlife, and water.

M2: That means there’s a difference between a forester and a park ranger, right?

M1: Yes, there are differences. A forester manages an area of forest for forest products, water quality, wildlife, recreation, and so on. A park ranger, on the other hand, manages an area in a national or state park, mainly for recreation. Another difference is who owns the land. A forester can work on federal, state, or private land, while a park ranger is almost always a government employee.

W: My major is biology, but I’d like to work in the woods in the area of wildlife preservation. Would that make me a forester or a biologist?

M1: Some foresters are primarily biologists. But most foresters majored in forestry management. Foresters and wildlife biologists often work together as a team. Both foresters and biologists want to see that various types of habitat flourish. Deer, for example, require a different habitat than wolves—yet the forest can accommodate them both.

6. What is the talk mainly about?

7. What can be inferred about the profession of forestry?

8. Why does the student say this:

“I’ve always been confused about the difference between a national park and a national forest. In a lot of ways they’re similar. For example, we can camp and hike in both.”

9. Listen again to part of the talk. Then answer the question.

“National parks, such as Yellowstone, are set aside and preserved in a near–natural state, mainly for the recreational enjoyment of the public. Our parks are administered by the Department of the Interior. National forests, on the other hand, are administered by the Department of Agriculture. Our forests are managed for their many benefits, including recreation, wood products, wildlife, and water.”

What can be inferred about national parks?

10. Listen again to part of the talk. Then answer the question.

“My major is biology, but I’d like to work in the woods in he area of wildlife preservation. Would that make me a forester or a biologist?”

“Some foresters are primarily biologists. But most foresters majored in forestry management. Foresters and wildlife biologists often work together as a team. Both foresters and biologists want to see that various types of habitat flourish.”

Why does the forester say this:

“Both foresters and biologists want to see that various types of habitat flourish.

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