1.3 A

Question 1
Passed from generation to generation by word of mouth, every society has a favorite imagined figure that is seen in the surface markings of the full moon. In Asia and Europe, it is commonly a hare, while North Americans see the “man in the moon” or the “lady in the moon.”

Question 2
Energy is the real currency of the world. We depend on energy to grow our food, to keep us alive, and to warm and cool our bodies and the buildings where we live and work. We also use it to move people and other objects as well as to change matter from one physical or chemical form to another.

Question 3
Young potential leaders should gain exceptional command, in both writing and speaking, of their own language. In addition, they should have workable knowledge of a second language. Leadership requires strong public speaking skills. Courses in public speaking do not enjoy high status in the academic world today; however, many bright young people are poor speakers, and they must develop their ability in this area.

Question 4
At least one central quality of music—rhythmic organization—can exist apart from the ability of people to hear it. Some composers, such as Scriabin, have emphasized the importance of the rhythmic aspect of music by translating their works into rhythmic series of colored forms. Others, such as Stravinsky, have stressed the significance of seeing music performed by an orchestra or a dance troupe. Thus, certain aspects of the musical experience are accessible even to deaf individuals who cannot appreciate its auditory qualities.

Question 5-6
Stratified societies are marked by differences among people that identify them as being “higher” or “lower.” The simplest forms of inequality are based on age and sex. For example, old people may have a high or a low position; women may be ranked below men. But in every society there is another form of inequality that ranks families rather than individuals. If a large number of families are similar to each other in education, income, and values, they constitute a social class.

Question 7-8
Most Americans still get married at some point in their lives, but even that group is shrinking. Among current generations of adults—starting with those born in the 1920s—more than 90 percent have married or will marry at some point in their lives. However, based on recent patterns of marriage and mortality, demographers calculate that a growing share of the younger generation is postponing marriage for so long that an unprecedented number will never marry at all. Data on cohabitation and unmarried childbearing suggests that marriage is becoming less relevant to Americans. 2.8 million of the nation’s households are unmarried couples, and one–third of them are caring for children, according to the Census Bureau.

Question 9-10
..1 … Pesticides temporarily increase the productivity of crops, until insects develop genetic resistance to them. Traces of chemical pesticides appear in many foods grown on pesticide–treated soils, in the groundwater that many people drink, and in the air we breathe.
.. 2 … The effects of pesticides occur mostly at the cellular level. Certain chemicals selectively inhibit the action of specific enzymes in plant and animal cells. Some are absorbed from an organism’s environment and act as metabolic poisons. For example, the agricultural insecticides DDT and parathion are inhibitors of key enzymes in the nervous system of animals.

1.3 B

Question 1-2
In the final decades of the nineteenth century, the guiding principles for the applied arts were sensitive handcrafting, simplicity, and respect for indigenous designs. These were promoted in books, magazines, newspapers, and art schools of the period. The philosophy encouraged the development of an artistic setting for home life and a substantial role for women in fostering that environment. More women began to study drawing, painting and the creation of art objects—pottery, jewelry, and textiles—and to exhibit their works more often in public. In cultivating the home, women also began to associate more with one another, founding art societies and social–reform clubs that empowered them. Many of the great art museums can trace their origins to that period and those women.

Question 3-4
.. 1 … The great tulip grower E.H. Krelage of Holland changed forever the way we look at tulips in our gardens. At the world trade fair in Paris in 1889, he introduced his new Darwin tulips, which were planted in brilliant bands of color under the Eiffel Tower and alongside the Seine. In that one brilliant marketing ploy, Krelage changed the tulip from a flower that was carefully and individually displayed to one that was planted in mass beddings of beautiful color.
.. 2 … Gardeners all over the world fell in love with Krelage’s tulips, which were tall, strong, and weatherproof. In New York, the public parks of the Bronx blazed with red tulips, as did Golden Gate Park in San Francisco and the St. Louis Botanic Garden. Although the wildly differing climatic zones of North America did not always suit them, tulips have proved to be forgiving plants and have thus remained garden favorites.

Question 5-6
The philosophy of existentialism is based on the belief that individual human beings face a meaningless, absurd, and science–oriented world. Individuals must therefore find or construct meaning for their existence and answer their own questions about self–identity and truth. The philosophy of phenomenology is the study of human experience and the interpretation of experience. Phenomenology is a close cousin to existentialism. Both echo many of the themes of earlier philosophies, particularly realism and transcendentalism, and in turn had an effect on other ways of thinking. Existentialism and phenomenology influenced theological and humanist thinkers, such as Martin Buber and Abraham Maslow. The former focused on the I–Thou and teacher–student relationships, while the latter theorized about the hierarchy of human needs and the ultimate need for self–actualization.

Question 7-10
.. 1 … Vitamin D increases the efficiency of the intestine to absorb calcium and phosphorus from food in order to mineralize the bones in the body. It also increases the activity of bone cells that make and lay down bone matrix. The bone matrix is like the frame of a building. If the body has adequate amounts of calcium and phosphorus, they are incorporated into the bone matrix, and the result is a strong, healthy skeleton. Our skin can make vitamin D when it is exposed to sunlight. However, most people living in North America do not get enough sunlight in the winter to make adequate amounts of the vitamin.
.. 2 … Young children who do not get enough calcium and vitamin D are unable to properly mineralize the bone matrix. Consequently, when gravity pushes on the skeleton, it causes the typical bowing of the legs seen in a child with the disease called rickets.
.. 3 … In adults, a deficiency in both calcium and vitamin D will increase the risk of bone fracture. Vitamin D is necessary to increase the body’s ability to absorb calcium. If the body does not have enough vitamin D, it can absorb only 10 to 15 percent of the calcium it receives. If the bloodstream does not have enough calcium, it will draw it out of the bones, which causes osteoporosis. With osteoporosis, the bones break down as bone cells called osteoclasts dissolve the matrix and release calcium from the bones. A vitamin D deficiency will increase the severity of thedisease because it increases the number of holes in the bones.



Outside of class, look in a newspaper, a magazine, or a university textbook. Select a short passage of one to three paragraphs. Make a photocopy and bring it to class. In class, work with a partner. Read the passage and circle all pronouns that refer to other words or ideas in the passage. Then identify the referent of each pronoun. Draw a line between each pronoun and its noun referent. Check your answers by reading the sentence aloud, putting the noun in place of each pronoun. Does the sentence make sense? With your partner, discuss why the writer probably chose to use the pronouns.


In reading done outside class, select a short passage of no more than 100 words. In the passage, locate pronouns/referring words and their noun referents. Write the passage on an overhead projector transparency, but omit the pronouns and referents. Leave a blank space where each pronoun and referent should be. Below the passage, write the missing words in mixed–up order. Your class must fill in the blanks correctly. Is there only one correct answer for each space?

Here is an example:

__________ burn uncontrolled in a forested, wooded, or scrubby area. Forest fires occur chiefly in old growth or second–growth forest. Brush fires are __________ that occur in scrub areas. Fires inject tremendous amounts of microscopic __________ into the atmosphere. __________ may be considered pollutants by people living downwind from a fire, but __________ are essential to the generation of clouds and precipitation.

ASH PARTICLES                THEY             WILDFIRES               THESE              PARTICLES                  THOSE

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