1.4 A

Question 1
Although the sensory receptors and brain pathways for taste and smell are independent, the two senses do interact. A great deal of what we consider taste is actually smell. If the sense of smell is obstructed , as by a head cold, the perception of taste is sharply reduced.
Question 2
A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms attached to a single, larger oxygen atom. The angle between the two hydrogen atoms is 120 degrees—the same angle as the angles of a hexagon—which accounts for the characteristic six–sided structure of ice crystals.
Question 3
Reports on an organization’s projects may fill several major functions at the same time. A report can be used to educate and gain support from key people and groups, to facilitate and inform decision–making about current and future projects, and to provide documentation for the organization’s records. The employees who are responsible for preparing the report must have a clear understanding of how the report will be used before they compile it.
Question 4
The evolutionary origins of music are wrapped in mystery. There is ample concrete evidence of musical instruments dating back to the Stone Age and much presumptive evidence about the role of music in organizing work groups, hunting parties, and religious rites. Many scholars suspect that musical and linguistic expression had common origins but then split off from one another several hundred thousand years ago.
Question 5-6
Modern tourism began with the transition from a rural to an industrial society, the rise of the automobile, and the expansion of road and highway systems. Before the Second World War, travel for pleasure was limited to the wealthy, but since then, improved standards of living and the availability of transportation have allowed more people to indulge. In the 1960s, improvements in aircraft technology and the development of commercial jet airlines enabled fast international travel. The tourism industry exploded. Today, airports in nearly every country can accommodate jumbo jets full of tourists seeking exotic destinations.
Question 7-8
At the college level, the best preparation for management is a liberal arts education. Individuals who will guide the future of their companies must broaden and deepen their understanding of the world. This means covering the whole range of the liberal arts, from science to literature to mathematics to history. Today’s executives must have some grasp of economic realities and the political process, as well as some comprehension of the basic framework within which scientific and technological changes take place. They must gain an understanding of human nature, including its negative aspects, such as the sources of human conflict and the pitfalls of power.
Question 9-10
It is a popular notion that autumn leaves are tinted by freezing temperatures. In truth, the foliage is dulled, not colored, by frost. Red leaves such as maples are brightest when sunny days are followed by cool—but not freezing—nights. Under such conditions, sun– made sugars are trapped in the leaves, where they form the red pigment anthocyanin. Leaves that appear yellow in autumn are no less yellow in spring and summer. However, in spring and summer the yellow pigments—carotenoid and xanthophyll—are masked by the green pigment chlorophyll, which breaks down with the diminishing sunlight of fall.

1.4 B

Questions 1-2
.. 1 … Earthshine—the faint light that allows us to see the dark side of the moon when the moon is a thin crescent—is sunlight reflected from the earth to the moon, then back again. Earthshine is variable because the earth’s reflectivity changes as large cloud masses come and go. The moon with its earthshine acts as a crude weather satellite by reporting, in a very simple way, the general state of terrestrial cloudiness. Because the amount of light reflected from the earth depends on the amount of cloud cover, the brightness of the dark side of the moon varies. .. 2 … As the phase of the moon progresses beyond a thin crescent, earthshine fades in a day or two. This is because the amount of sunlit earth available to make earthshine diminishes as the moon orbits the earth. Also, there is the increasing glareof the moon’s growing crescent, which causes a loss of visibility by irradiation.
Questions 3-4
.. 1 … Cool has withstood the fleeting nature of most slang. As a modifier, as a noun, and as a verb, cool has been around a long time. Shakespeare used cool as a verb, and the word later evolved into other parts of speech. It has been used as an adjective since 1728 to describe large sums of money, as in “worth a cool ten million.” ..2 … Cool, meaning “excellent” or “first–rate,” was popularized in jazz circles, and jazz musicians and jazz lovers still refer to great works as “cool.” As long as Miles Davis’s classic 1957 album, Birth of the Cool, remains one of the best–selling jazz recordings of all time, cool will stay cool—it will carry the same weight as it did more than 50 years ago. One reason for the endurance of cool is that its meaning continues to evolve. While it meant “wow!” two decades ago, today it is more often used to mean, “That’s OK with me,” as in “I’m cool with that.”.
Questions 5-6
.. 1 … The dominant feature on the map of Canada is the two–million–square–mile mass of ancient rock known as the Canadian Shield. The shield sweeps in a great arc around Hudson Bay from far northwest to far northeast, touching the Great Lakes on the south and extending eastward deep into Quebec. The rock of the shield consists mainly of granite and gneiss formed nearly four billion years ago. During the ice ages, huge glaciers advanced and retreated over the region, scouring the surface, removing most of the existing soil, and hollowing out countless lakes. .. 2 … Clay soils exist in a few areas on the shield’s southern edge, but attempts to bring them into agricultural use have been largely unsuccessful. However, the region’s mineral wealth has sustained both temporary and permanent settlements during the past century, and more recently, some of its vast potential for hydroelectric power has been tapped.
Questions 7-10
.. 1 … A growing number of companies are finding that small–group discussions allow them to develop healthier ways to think about work. People at all levels of the corporate structure are starting groups that meet weekly or monthly to talk over ways to make workplaces more ethical and just. .. 2 … Several factors must be present for small–group discussions to be successful. First, it is important to put together the right group. Groups work best when they consist of people who have similar duties, responsibilities, and missions. This does not mean, however, that everyone in the group must think in lockstep. .. 3 … All participants should agree on the group’s purpose. Finding the right subject matter is essential. There are several ways to fuel the discussion: by using the company’s mission statement, by finding readings on work and ethics by experts in the topic, or by analyzing specific workplace incidents that have affected the company or others like it. .. 4 … Finally, the dynamics of the group should be balanced, and the discussion leader must not be allowed to overwhelm the conversation or the agenda. Groups work best when the same person is not always in charge. It is better to rotate the leadership for each meeting and let that leader choose the material for discussion.

1.4 C

Questions 1-4
.. 1 … There is growing evidence that urbanization has a sharp impact on climate, causing changes that can wreak havoc on precipitation patterns that supply the precious resource of water. The heavy amounts of heat and pollution rising from cities both delay and stimulate the fall of precipitation, depriving some areas of rain while drenching others. .. 2 …Cities are on average one to ten degrees warmer than surrounding undeveloped areas. Cities also produce large amounts of pollutants called aerosols, gaseous suspensions of dust particles or byproducts from the burning of fossil fuels. Both heat and aerosols change the dynamics of clouds. When hoisted up in the sky, the microscopic particles act as multiple surfaces on which the moisture in clouds can condense as tiny droplets. This can prevent or delay the formation of larger raindrops that fall more easily from the sky, or it can cause the rain to fall in another location. .. 3 …In California, pollution blows eastward and causes a precipitation shortage of around one trillion gallons a year across the Sierra Nevada mountain range. By contrast, in very humid cities, such as Houston, heat and pollutants seem to invigorate summer storm activity by allowing clouds to build higher and fuller before releasing torrential rains.
Questions 5-10
.. 1 … So much sentimentality is attached to the rose in popular culture that it is difficult to separate the original mythological and folkloric beliefs from the emotional excess that surrounds the flower. Yet if we look into the beliefs, we find that the rose is much more than the mere symbol of romantic love invoked by every minor poet and painter. .. 2 …One of the rose’s most common associations in folklore is with death. The Romans often decked the tombs of the dead with roses; in fact, Roman wills frequently specified that roses were to be planted on the grave. To this day, in Switzerland, cemeteries are known as rose gardens. The Saxons equated the rose with life, and they believed that when a child died, the figure of death could be seen plucking a rose outside the house. .. 3 …The rose has a long association with female beauty. Shakespeare mentions the rose more frequently than any other flower, often using it as a token of all that is lovely and good. For the Arabs, on the other hand, the rose was a symbol not of feminine but of masculine beauty. .. 4 …Later the rose became a sign of secrecy and silence. The expression sub rosa, “under the rose,” is traced to a Roman belief. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, it was common practice to carve or paint roses on the ceilings of council chambers to emphasize the intention of secrecy.

1.3 D

Questions 1-5
.. 1 … In the nineteenth century, Americans were becoming more familiar with European homes and luxuries. When “period” furniture became popular, American furniture factories attempted to duplicate various styles of French and English furniture of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. At the same time, designers in England were attempting a return to handicrafts as a means of self–expression. William Morris and other leaders of the English Arts and Crafts movement created home furnishings that celebrated the individuality of the designer. .. 2 …In the United States, a similar movement soon followed. The American Arts and Crafts—or Craftsman—movement was based not only on individualism but also on a return to simplicity and practicality. Like the Arts and Crafts furniture in England, the Craftsman furniture in America represented a revolt from mass–produced furniture. Makers of Craftsman furniture sought inspiration in human necessity, basing their furniture on a respect for the sturdy and primitive forms that were meant for usefulness alone. .. 3 …Gustav Stickley, pioneer of the Craftsman movement, believed that average working people wanted furniture that was comfortable to live with and would also be a good investment of money. Stickley felt that any American style in furniture would have to possess the essential qualities of durability, comfort, and convenience. Craftsman furniture was plain and unornamented—made to look as if the common man could build it himself in his own workshop. Locally obtained hardwoods and simple, straight lines were the hallmarks of its construction. The severity of the style departed greatly from the ornate and pretentious factory–made “period” furniture that had dominated in homes up till then.
Questions 6-10
.. 1 … Zora Neale Hurston devoted five years to the collection of rural black folklore in Haiti, the West Indies, and the American South. Her ear for the rhythms of speech and her daring in seeking initiation into many voodoo cults resulted in ethnographic studies such as Mules and Men, which conveyed the vitality, movement, and color of rural black culture. .. 2 … Hurston continued her fieldwork in the Caribbean but eventually followed her most cherished calling, that of fiction writer. Their Eyes Were Watching God (1937), a novel about a black woman finding happiness in simple farm life, is now her most famous book, although for thirty years after publication, it was largely unknown, unread, and dismissed by the male literary establishment. In this novel, Hurston gives us a heroic female character, Janie Crawford, who portrays freedom, autonomy, and self–realization, while also being a romantic figure attached to a man. This novel reveals an African American writer struggling with the problem of the hero as woman and the difficulties of giving a woman character such courage and power in 1937. .. 3 … From the beginning of her career, Hurston was criticized for not writing fiction in the protest tradition. Her conservative views on race relations put her out of touch with the temper of the times. She argued that integration would undermine the strength and values of African American culture. Hurston died in poverty and obscurity in 1960, and it was only afterward that later generations of black and white Americans were to rediscover and revere her celebrations of black culture.



With your teacher and classmates, discuss ways to improve your English vocabulary. Answer these questions:

a. What is the best way to acquire new English vocabulary? b. How did you learn in the past? c. What method or methods work best for you now?

(Possible answers: listen to lectures; watch television and movies; have an English–speaking roommate; write down three new words every day; memorize word lists; translate words into your native language; read an English newspaper; read various types of materials; read textbooks in your major field of study.)

On the board, make a list of the various ways to learn new words. Then, decide which three ways work best for you. Practice these ways to improve your vocabulary!


Every week, learn five prefixes and five stems from the charts on pages 73–74. In reading done outside of class, look for examples of words with these prefixes and stems. Bring examples to share in class.


Outside of class, look in a magazine, a newspaper, or a university textbook. Find a paragraph in which you have learned a new word. Underline the word. Make four copies of the paragraph to bring to class.

In class, form groups of four students. In your group, give each classmate a copy of your paragraph. Read each paragraph from your classmates. Work as a team. Look for context clues and word parts that help you understand the meaning of each underlined word. Is the word a noun, a verb, an adjective, or some other part of speech? Write a short definition of each underlined word. Then, look up the word in an English–only dictionary. How close is your group’s definition to the dictionary definition?


In reading done outside of class, find three sentences, each of which contains a word that is new for you. Bring the sentences to class. Choose one sentence to write on the board, but omit the new word, leaving a blank space where the word should be. Your classmates must think of words that would fit the context of the sentence. How many words would be correct in the sentence? Compare these words with the real missing word.


Start a vocabulary notebook to help you prepare for the TOEFL. In the notebook, write new words that you have learned through reading. Include examples of the words used in context. Organize the notebook into word categories. (Possible categories: words by subject area, such as science, business, and the arts; important terms from your major field of study; words with the same prefix or stem; words that are difficult to remember; words that have an interesting sound.)

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