1.7 A

Question 1

In a typical business conference, associates meet to discuss policy or to solve problems. The average participants do not do much specific preparing; their background and thinking usually formulate their contribution. But it is best if all participants know in advance the purpose of the conference. Some general preparation may be in order, and participants may want to take into the conference materials or data that might be useful if a matter comes up.

Question 2

Because they absorb heat from the environment rather than generate much of their own, reptiles are said to be ectotherms, a term identifying their major source of body heat as being external. Ectotherms heat directly with solar energy by basking in the sun, rather than through the metabolic breakdown of food, as in mammals and birds. This means that a reptile can survive on less than 10 percent of the calories required by a mammal of equivalent size.

Question 3

Architecture is concerned with the large–scale manipulation of elements in the dimensions of length, width, and height. These dimensions may apply to a solid, such as the Egyptian pyramids, or to hollow interior spaces, ranging in size and complexity from a domestic room to a vast cathedral. They may also apply to the spaces around and between buildings. Moreover, every building has a physical context in relation to other buildings. Sometimes the designer disregards the context on the assumption that surrounding structures will later be replaced. However, it is more often posterity that destroys the once appropriate original context.

Question 4

The first great collector of Canadian folk traditions was Marius Barbeau, who oversaw the preservation of thousands of texts in what is now the National Museum of Canada. Fearing that these traditions would disappear unless gathered and catalogued, Barbeau preserved the folklore and folk songs of cultures ranging from rural Quebec to the Tsimshian Indians of British Columbia. These folkways—songs, dialects, legends, tall tales, riddles, and children’s rhymes—were all part of Canada’s traditional rural experience. They provided evidence of the everyday life of the people that was far richer than that in most other historical texts.

Question 5

Ruminants—cattle, bison, sheep, goats, deer, antelopes, and giraffes—have a large four–chambered stomach that enables them to digest fibrous plant matter. When a ruminant first swallows a mouthful of grass or leaves, the food enters the stomach’s first chamber, the rumen, where bacteria start to break down the cellulose–rich matter and form it into small balls of cud. The ruminant periodically returns the cud to its mouth where it is chewed at length to crush the fibers, making them more accessible to further bacterial action. The ruminant then reswallows the cud, which passes through the other three chambers of the stomach for further digestion.

Question 6

Cities differ from towns in the size, density, and diversity of their population. The city offers a wider variety of goods and services, as well as more extensive employment and cultural opportunities. City life is characterized by impersonal and formal social relationships, greater privacy, and more lifestyle choices—a way of life referred to as urbanism. The urban spirit is sophisticated and dynamic, stimulating the mind through contrasts and encouraging tolerance of differences. However, urbanism is not restricted to city dwellers; it can be considered a trait of all modern societies at a high level of technological development. The urban spirit spreads beyond the city via the mass media: television, movies, music, and the Internet.

Question 7-8

.. 1 … Alligators have no natural predators except humans. In fact, humans drove alligators to near extinction in many of their marsh and swamp habitats in North America. Hunters once killed large numbers of these animals for their meat and soft belly skin, which was used to make shoes, belts, and wallets. Between 1950 and 1960, hunters wiped out 90 percent of the alligators in Louisiana and greatly reduced the alligator population in the Florida Everglades.

.. 2 … In 1967 the federal government placed the American alligator on the endangered species list. In the next decade, protected by hunters and averaging about 40 eggs per nest, the alligator made a strong comeback. It was reclassified from endangered to threatened in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas, where the vast majority of the animals live. As a threatened species, it is still protected from excessive harvesting by hunters; however, limited hunting is allowed in some areas to keep the population from growing too large.

Question 9-10

.. 1 … Current archaeological theory holds that the first humans in the Americas were bands of advanced Stone Age people who crossed over from what is now Siberia in Asia sometime between 12 and 30 thousand years ago. Some scientists think that these early humans crossed what is now the Bering Sea on a land bridge, a stretch of glacial ice connecting Asia and North America. Others speculate that they may have crossed that 55–mile–wide channel by boat.

.. 2 … These early humans probably migrated southward along an ice–free corridor. After several thousand years, perhaps at a pace of only ten miles every year, the migrants spread over this new land from Alaska to the tip of South America, a trail over ten thousand miles long. In South America, where the glaciers from the ice age melted first, the migrants took strong root in the fertile soil and warming climate of Patagonia. As the ice receded farther north, civilization in what is now Central America and Mexico began to take shape and flourish.

1.7 B

Question 1-3

.. 1 … A subculture is a cultural group within the larger society that provides social support to people who differ from the majority in terms of status, race, ethnic background, religion, or other factors. Whenever these differences lead to exclusion or discrimination, subcultures develop as a shield to protect members from the negative attitudes of others. Subcultures unify the group and provide it with values, norms, and a history.

.. 2 … Some subcultures do not experience discrimination yet differ from the mainstream enough to generate a “we” feeling among members and a sense of separateness. Examples include military officers, college students, information technology specialists, social workers, jazz musicians, or any subgroup with its own special language and customs. Subcultures usually have values that are variations on those of the dominant culture. These variations are close enough for the subgroup to remain under the societal umbrella but different enough to reflect the unique experience of subgroup members. In North America today, teenagers are a distinct subculture with a special way of talking and dressing so that insiders can recognize one another while keeping outsiders out.

Question 4-6

.. 1 …The cerebral cortex of the human brain is divided into two hemispheres that are linked by a thick band of fibers called the corpus callosum. Each hemisphere has four discrete lobes, and researchers have identified a number of functional areas within each lobe.The left hemisphere has areas for controlling speech, language, and calculation, while the right hemisphere controls creative ability and spatial perception. This centering of functions in specific areas of the brain is known as lateralization.

.. 2 … Much of our knowledge about brain lateralization comes from studies of “split–brain” patients, people with a damaged corpus callosum. In one experiment, a subject holding a key in his left hand, with both eyes open, was able to name it as a key. However, when the subject’s eyes were covered, he could use the key to open a lock, but was unable to name it as a key. The center for speech is in the left hemisphere, but sensory information from the left hand crosses over and enters the right side of the brain.Without the corpus callosum to size, texture, and function of the key could not be transferred from the right to the left hemisphere.The link between sensory input and spoken response was disconnected.

Question 7-10

.. 1 ..Organic compost (partially decomposed organic matter) requires four basic elements: carbon, nitrogen, air, and water. The carbon comes from dead organic matter, such as dried leaves, straw, and wood chips. The nitrogen comes from fresh or green materials, such as vegetative kitchen waste, untreated grass clippings, and animal manure. Fungi, bacteria, and other microorganisms use the carbon for energy and the nitrogen to grow and reproduce.The microorganisms secrete enzymes that break down the cells of the dead vegetation and animal matter. These enzymes are the glue that cements the soil particles into larger, coarser grains. Coarse soil crumbles easily, which aerates the soil and allows it to absorb moisture efficiently. This partially digested mixture is compost.

.. 2 … Compost is a stage of decay in which most of the organic matter has been broken down, but it may still be possible to identify individual parts such as leaves and twigs. The final phase of decay is called humus—a dark, sticky, nutrient–rich substance in which the original materials can no longer be distinguished.Although the terms “compost” and “humus” are often used interchangeably, they are not synonymous.

Extension

1

Outside of class, look in a magazine or a university textbook. Select a short passage of one to three paragraphs. In class, work with a partner. Identify the nouns and verbs in each selected passage. Then, use a dictionary, synonym finder, or thesaurus to find as many synonyms as possible for the nouns and verbs you have identified. Names and other proper nouns will not have synonyms. Also, be aware that not every synonym will be appropriate for the context of your passage, and some synonyms will be more appropriate than others. If you are not sure whether a synonym is correct in the context, ask your teacher.

2

In reading done outside class, select a short passage of no more than 100 words. Write a paraphrase of the passage by restating each sentence in a different way, using different words. You may also combine ideas from more than one sentence into one sentence. To extend this activity further, bring the original passage and your paraphrase to class. Exchange your original passage with a partner’s. Next, write a paraphrase of this new passage while your partner paraphrases the original passage from you. When you are both finished writing, compare the two paraphrases. Do both paraphrases contain the same essential information as the original?

3

Outside of class, select a short passage of no more than 100 words. Make a copy of the passage for each student in your class, or write the passage on an overhead projector transparency. Choose one sentence from the passage and restate it in a different way, using different words. In class, write the paraphrased sentence on the board or the overhead projector. Your class must read the passage and the paraphrased sentence and determine which sentence in the original passage is being paraphrased. Does your paraphrase include all of the essential information from the original sentence?

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