1.8 A

Question 1

Kindergartners are quite skillful with language.   A   Providing a “sharing time” gives children a natural opportunity for talking. However, many will need help in becoming good listeners.  B   Some sort of rotation scheme is usually necessary to divide talking opportunities between the talkative and silent extremes.  C  Teachers can provide activities or experiences for less confident children to talk about, such as a field trip, a book, or a film.  D 

Question 2

Bogs are a distinctive type of wetland.  A  They appear relatively dry, with only small amounts of shallow water visible.   B   The surface material is largely sphagnum moss or other organic matter rather than mineral soil.  C   Bogs are usually characterized by evergreen trees and shrubs and are underlain by deep peat deposits.  D  Bogs will develop in former glacial lakes by the gradual accumulation of organic matter falling from beneath a floating mat of vegetation advancing out over the water.

Question 3

While all living things need sunlight, too much of it can be oppressive, even damaging.   A    Any overheated dog or cat can appreciate the relief provided by a mature shade tree on a sunny day.  B   The densest foliage, and so the densest shade, is found under the broad leaves of deciduous trees like oaks and maples.  C   By cooling the surrounding air, the shade from trees reduces the demand for air conditioning in nearby homes.  D   This translates into reduced emissions of carbon dioxide from oil– or coal–fired electrical generators.

Question 4

The highest of the standard orchestral instruments, the flute is unlike the other woodwinds because it is held across the player’s mouth.   A   The air inside is set in vibration by the action of the airstream against the edge of the hole.  B  The flute has no reed, so its tone is pure and creamy.  C  In contrast, the oboe has a rasping, “sawtooth” configuration to its sound when played loud.  D   However, the oboe can produce a quiet and gentle sound when called for, and it can even approximate the human voice

Question 5

For centuries, bamboo has provided building materials for Eastern cultures. Now it is becoming more popular and available in the West, particularly as a substitute for expensive hardwood flooring.   A  As a flooring material, natural honey–colored bamboo is more stable than carbonized bamboo.  B   Carbonizing is a technique of steaming and pressurizing the bamboo to introduce carbon fibers that darken the original material.  C  However, it lowers the hardness factor, making the darker bamboo more susceptible to damage. D 

Question 6

An economy is efficient if there is no way of reorganizing production and distribution to improve everyone’s satisfaction. Economists call such a state allocative efficiency.   A   When people come to a market with goods they have produced, they trade their goods for those of others.  B   Every completed trade raises the satisfaction of both sides.  C  When all of the beneficial trades have been completed, no one can find another trade to improve his situation. D  Under such conditions, the economy has attained allocative efficiency.

Question 7

For people with a condition called synesthesia, sound is directly linked to the sense of sight, and they experience sounds by seeing them as colors.   A   However, different sounds sometimes remind everyone of different colors.  B  In one study, students were asked to relate colors to different tones of music.  C  White, yellow, and pink were associated with tones in the 4,000–Hz range; blue and green were associated with tones in the 1,000–Hz range; and brown, gray, and black were associated with tones in the 200–Hz range. D 

Question 8

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes in the lungs.  A  It often appears after a cold or an upper respiratory infection that does not heal completely. It also may accompany childhood infections such as measles, whooping cough, and typhoid fever.  B  The inflamed bronchial tubes secrete a sticky mucus called sputum. It is difficult for the tiny hairs on the bronchi to clear out this sputum.  C  The cough that comes with bronchitis is the body’s attempt to eliminate it.  D  Other symptoms include discomfort or tightness in the chest, low fever, sore throat, and sometimes wheezing. Severe cases of bronchitis may lead to pneumonia.

Question 9

Among the modern dance innovators of the early twentieth century was Ruth St. Denis, whose dances were lush and graceful, tinged with exoticism and mysticism.  A  St. Denis was particularly expert in the manipulation of draperies and veils so that the moving fabrics seemed like magical extensions of her own body.  B  St. Denis’s 1914 marriage to dancer–choreographer Ted Shawn resulted in a wedding of names, Denishawn, which first became a school and then a dance company.  C  Denishawn drew its inspiration and derived its curriculum from a variety of ethnic sources. D  The touring Denishawn company might offer on a single program a Hindu dance, a rhythmic interpretation of concert music, a romantic duet, a hula, and a demonstration of the latest ballroom craze.

Question 10

 A  Within the field of oceanography, the major areas stressed are physical, biological, chemical, geological, engineering, and technological. However, each of these areas is interdependent of the others. Both physical oceanographers and ocean engineers are involved in harnessing the energies of the ocean to fill the demand for electrical power.  B  Even if oceanographers have an area of major interest, they are consistently forced to take a more interdisciplinary view of their work because the various sciences overlap. C  Oceanographers of different backgrounds depend on each other to further their own research.  D  A conference of marine scientists might include discussions of plate tectonics, effects of offshore mining on fisheries, effects of climate change on marine life, technology for deep–sea exploration, and other related topics.

1.8 B

Question 1-3

.. 1 … The 2,000–year–old complex of mounds occupying thirteen acres on the banks of the Scioto River in southwestern Ohio is one of the most important sites of the Hopewell Indian culture. Their mound construction was especially intensive in this area. It offers evidence that this society flourished in the Ohio Valley for five hundred years.

.. 2 … The 23 mounds are spaciously placed but with no overall pattern. Archaeologists have determined that the complex—called Mound City—was apparently both a village and a burial site. Numerous artifacts have been found in excavations of the burial mounds. They include shell beads, bear and shark teeth, pottery, and ear spools of copper and silver. A number of pipes found in one mound—probably belonging to a chief or priest—are remarkable for their exquisite workmanship and stylized realism in the likenesses of animals and birds: wildcat, beaver, great blue heron, and raven.

Question 4-6

.. 1 …Although some fish appear capable of swimming at extremely high speeds, most fish, such as trout and minnows, can actually swim only about ten body lengths per second. Translated into kilometers per hour, it means that a 30–centimeter trout can swim only about 10.4 kilometers per hour. Generally speaking, the larger the fish the faster it can swim.

.. 2 … We can understand how fish swim by studying the motion of a very flexible fish such as an eel. The movement is serpentine, with undulations moving backward along the body by alternate contraction of the muscles on either side of the eel’s body. While the undulations move backward, the bending of the body pushes sideways against the water, producing a reactive force that is directed forward at an angle. The movement has two components: thrust and lateral force. Thrust is used to propel the fish forward, and lateral force tends to make the fish’s head deviate from the course in the same direction as the tail. This side–to–side head movement is very obvious in a swimming eel, but fish with large, rigid heads have enough surface resistance to minimize the lateral movement.

Glossary:

serpentine: like a snake undulation: wavelike motion

Question 7-10

.. 1 … Both the Greeks and the Romans minted coins. The Romans called the place where coins were made and stored by the Latin word moneta, the ancestor of the English word money. Even after coins were developed, however, the world was still a long way away from our current system of money. Each city made its own coins, with no common way of exchanging one type for another. Gradually, traders worked out different rates of exchange.

.. 2 … Another complication lay in the fact that for thousands of years, most people did not use money for important purchases.Although the wealthier classes used money for major transactions, ordinary people continued to barter for most things in their daily lives. For example, workers would be paid in food, clothing, and shelter, rather than in money. Farmers would grow food and make items for themselves, trading the tiny surplus for whatever they could not make or grow.

.. 3 … Paper money had a lot of advantages: it was lighter and easier to carry. It was also a lot cheaper to make. The development of paper money meant that people had grasped the difference between money as a symbol and money as something that was worth only the actual cost of the paper and ink in making a bill. The first known use of paper money was in China, around the year 1300. The first use of paper money in Europe was in Sweden in the 1600s, a time of extensive international trade and exploration. Because paper money made trade easier and more efficient, its use quickly caught on throughout the world.

Extension

1

Outside of class, look in a newspaper, a magazine, or a university textbook. Select a short passage of one to three paragraphs. Make a photocopy and bring it to class. In class, work with a partner. Read the passage and underline the transitions, pronouns, and other key words and phrases that help make the passage coherent.

2

Outside of class, select a paragraph of four to six sentences from a magazine or a university textbook. Copy out the sentences in the form of a list. Now, mix up the order of the sentences.In class, write the list of sentences in the mixed–up, incorrect order on the board or an overhead projector transparency. As a class, put the sentences into a coherent order as a paragraph. What words and phrases are clues to coherence? What makes the order of sentences logical? Is there more than one possible order for the sentences? Does changing the order of sentences change the meaning of the paragraph?

3

Outside of class, select a paragraph of four to six sentences from a magazine or university textbook. Copy out the paragraph on an overhead projector transparency, but omit one sentence. Write the omitted sentence in a separate box above or below the paragraph. In class, work in pairs or small groups to determine where the omitted sentence would best fit in the paragraph. Compare your answer with the answers of other students and with the original passage.

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