Read the passages and choose the best answer to each question.

Answer all questions about a passage on the basis of what is stated or implied in that passage.

Time – 15 minutes


1. The discovery of freezing has changed our eating habits more than any other related invention. Because many foods contain large amounts of water, they freeze solidly at or just below 32 degrees Fahrenheit. When we lower the temperature to well below the freezing point and prevent air from penetrating the food, we retard the natural process of decay that causes food to spoil. Freezing preserves the flavor and nutrients of food better than any other preservation method. When properly prepared and packed, foods and vegetables can be stored in the freezer for one year.

2. Most vegetables and some fruits need blanching before they are frozen, and to avoid this step would be an expensive mistake. The result would be a product largely devoid of vitamins and minerals. Proper blanching curtails the enzyme action, which vegetables require during their growth and ripening but which continues after maturation and will lead to decay unless it is almost entirely stopped by blanching. This process is done in two ways, either by plunging vegetables in a large amount of rapidly boiling water for a few minutes or by steaming them. For steam blanching, it is important that timing begin when the water at the bottom of the pot is boiling. Different vegetables require different blanching times, and specified times for each vegetable must be observed. Underblanching is like no blanching at all, and overblanching, while stopping the enzyme action, will produce soggy, discolored vegetables.


1. The large–scale settlement of North America by Europeans began in the seventeenth century. France took the early lead in the contest for the temperate regions of North America. In 1608, the first permanent French colony was established at Quebec. In 1682, La Salle explored the Mississippi River and claimed the entire river system for France. But despite these early successes, there were never enough French settlers to make French North America a large center of population.

2. The Dutch under Henry Hudson explored the eastern coast of the continent and claimed a large area, including the river that was named after him. The Dutch colony of New Netherlands started with a few trading posts on the Hudson River, where New York City is now located, and expanded into enterprises in New Jersey, Delaware and Connecticut. The Dutch settlements suffered a lot of competition from the English, and eventually the Dutch governor was forced to surrender all Dutch lands to the English.

3. England’s commercial and political growth at home soon gave it the lead in the colonial race, but this success came only after some early losses, such as the failed colony on Roanoke Island. The first success for England was in 1607 at Jamestown. There were also permanent colonies farther north, in the area known as New England.

4. The colonies of North America grew dramatically beyond the first settlements at Quebec and Jamestown. Population figures for the seventeenth century show that in 1625 there were around 500 settlers in French Canada and 200 in Dutch settlements, but there were 2,000 in the English colonies. Fifty years later, the English had absorbed the Dutch colonies. By 1700, New France had around 20,000 people, but the English colonies had a quarter of a million.

5. The European conquest of North America contributed to international conflict. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the European powers fought several wars in North America. Most of these conflicts were extensions of wars taking place in Europe at the same time, but some were started by the colonists themselves. The conflicts—especially those between England and France—were mostly over commercial interests and signaled the intense rivalry for control of North American land and resources.

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